Coining word formation

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Coining word formation

Coinage is the word formation process in which a new word is created either deliberately or accidentally without using the other word formation processes and often from seemingly nothing. For example, the following list of words provides some common coinages found in everyday English:.

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Notice that many coinages start out as brand names for everyday items such as Kleenex for a facial tissue. Nonce words are new words formed through any number of word formation processes with the resulting word meeting a lexical need that is not expected to recur.

Note that although most nonce words come in and out of use very quickly, some nonce words catch on and become everyday words. For example, Lewis Carroll coined the word chortlea blend of chuckle and snortfor the poem Jabberwocky in the book Through the Looking-Glass and What Alice Found There ; unlike most nonce words, however, chortle has gained acceptance as a legitimate blended word.

Loanwords are the word formation process in which a word from one language is borrowed directly into another language.

For example, the following common English words are borrowed from foreign languages:. English loanwords are also referred to as borrowed. Calquing is the word formation process in which a borrowed word or phrase is translated from one language to another. For example, the following common English words are calqued from foreign languages:. Calques are also referred to as root-for-root or word-for-word translations. Image Credits. Jaberwock Image. Bright Hub Education. Skip to content. Coinages Coinage is the word formation process in which a new word is created either deliberately or accidentally without using the other word formation processes and often from seemingly nothing.

coining word formation

For example, the following list of words provides some common coinages found in everyday English: aspirin escalator heroin band-aid factoid Frisbee Google kerosene Kleenex Laundromat linoleum muggle nylon psychedelic quark Xerox zipper Band-Aid is a coinage word Notice that many coinages start out as brand names for everyday items such as Kleenex for a facial tissue. Power or influence like that of a magician; bewitching or fascinating attraction or charm.

English Loanwords Loanwords are the word formation process in which a word from one language is borrowed directly into another language. For example, the following common English words are borrowed from foreign languages: algebra — Arabic bagel — Yiddish cherub — Hebrew chow mein — Chinese fjord — Norwegian galore — Irish haiku — Japanese kielbasa — Polish murder — French near — Sanskrit paprika — Hungarian pizza — Italian smorgasbord — Swedish tamale — Spanish yo-yo — Tagalog English loanwords are also referred to as borrowed.

Calquing Calquing is the word formation process in which a borrowed word or phrase is translated from one language to another. Image Credits Image by Clker-Free-Vector-Images from Pixabay Jaberwock Image This post is part of the series: Word Formation: Creating New Words in English The articles in this series define and exemplify the most common word formation processes, or the creation of new words, in English including derivation, back-formation, conversion, compounding, clipping, blending, abbreviations, acronyms, eponyms, coinages, nonce words, borrowing, and calquing.

Privacy Policy.A s dictionary publishers never tire of reminding usour language is growing. Not content with the million or so words they already have at their disposal, English speakers are adding new ones at the rate of around 1, a year. Recent dictionary debutants include blog, grok, crowdfunding, hackathon, airball, e-marketing, sudoku, twerk and Brexit. But these represent just a sliver of the tip of the iceberg.

Who invents these words, and how? What rules govern their formation? And what determines whether they catch on? Geoffrey Chaucer universe, approachBen Jonson rant, petulantJohn Donne self-preservation, valediction and Sir Thomas More atonement, anticipate lag behind. It should come as no great surprise that writers are behind many of our lexical innovations. But the fact is, we have no idea who to credit for most of our lexicon.

If our knowledge of the who is limited, we have a rather fuller understanding of the how. All new words are created by one of 13 mechanisms:. Hence realisation sdemocratisedetonatorpreteenhyperlink and monogamish A similar process brought about pea, liaise, enthuse, aggress and donate.

Forming New Words: Coinages, Nonce Words, English Loanwords and Calques

Typically, compound words begin life as separate entities, then get hitched with a hyphen, and eventually become a single unit. Thus the crane, meaning lifting machine, got its name from the long-necked bird, and the computer mouse was named after the long-tailed animal. The word giant was for a long time just a noun, meaning a creature of enormous size, until the early 15th century, when people began using it as an adjective.

The issue of whether, and for how long, to retain the capital letters on eponyms is a thorny one. There are three main subtypes: clippings, acronyms and initialisms. Most words are borrowed from French, Latin and Greek; some of the more exotic provenances are Flemish hunkRomany cushtyPortuguese fetishNahuatl tomato — via SpanishTahitian tattooRussian mammothMayan sharkGaelic sloganJapanese tycoonWest Turkic hordeWalloon rabbit and Polynesian taboo.

Calques flea market, brainwashing, loan word are translations of borrowings. Plop, ow, barf, cuckoo, bunch, bump and midge all originated this way. To this method we owe the likes of flip-flop, goody-goody, boo-boo, helter-skelter, picnic, claptrap, hanky-panky, hurly-burly, lovey-dovey, higgledy-piggledy, tom-tom, hip hop and cray-cray. Confirmed examples are few and far between, but include quark Murray Gell-Mannbling unknown and fleek Vine celebrity Kayla Newman.There are four main kinds of word formation : prefixes, suffixes, conversion and compounds.

We add suffixes after the base or stem of a word. The main purpose of a suffix is to show what class of word it is e. Word classes and phrase classes.

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Conversion involves the change of a word from one word class to another. For example, the verbs to email and to microwave are formed from the nouns email and microwave :.

coining word formation

Can you text her? They are always jetting somewhere. All companies have their ups and downs.

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Has anybody seen my Dickens? When we use compoundingwe link together two or more bases to create a new word.

Normally, the first item identifies a key feature of the second word.

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For example, the two bases back and ache can combine to form the compound noun backacheand the two bases post and card combine to form the compound noun postcard. Compounds are found in all word classes. The most common types of compounds are: Nouns: car park, rock band. It is sometimes difficult to know where to put hyphens in words that are compound ed. It is also difficult to know whether to separate words e.

Compound words. Verbs: formation. Abbreviation involves shortening a word. We do this in three main ways: clipping, acronyms and blends. We also commonly clip proper names for people:. Acronyms are a type of abbreviation formed when the initial letters of two or more words are combined in a way that produces consonant and vowel sequences found in words.

Acronyms are normally pronounced as words:. Initials are similar to acronyms but are pronounced as sets of letters, not as words:. CD : c ompact d iscpronounced C—D. Abbreviations, initials and acronyms. We form words with back-formation when we remove part of a word, usually something which we think is a suffix or occasionally a prefix.

We do this commonly when we form verbs from nouns. For example: to liaise back-formed from the noun liaison ; to intuit back-formed from the noun intuitionto enthuse back-formed from the noun enthusiasm :. Can you liaise with Tim and agree a time for the meeting, please? Loan words are words that are borrowed from other languages.Posting Komentar.

There are some points of view about the meaning of coinage. Coinage is the word formation process in which a new word is created either deliberately or accidentally without using the other word formation processes and often from seemingly nothing. As neologism or coinage, we identify the word formation process of inventing entirely new words neology. This is a very rare and uncommon method to create new words, but in the media, people try to outdo each other with more and better words to name their products.

Often these trademark names are adopted by the masses and they become ''everyday words of language'' Yule Also coinage refers to extension of a name of a product from a specific reference to a more general one such as Kleenex, Xerox, and Kodak. And in some cases, the meaning of these words is broadened. Example, complicated chemical or technical terms like Aspirin : acetylsalicylic acid are adopted as the trademark term and often replace standard terms for e.

This also happened to words like XeroxKleenex or the German Nutella. Some words are differentiated from 'standard' neologism snamely eponyms. Eponyms are words that are ''based on the name of a person or a place'' Yule Common eponyms are watt from name of the discovererFahrenheit from name the expertjeans takes from Italian city of JENWA, sandwich from a person who makes his meal between two slices of bread, gold from Italian scientist.

The following list of words provides some common coinages found in everyday English:. Notice that many coinages start out as brand names for everyday items such as Kleenex for a facial tissue. The earliest blends in English only go back to the 19th century, with wordplay coinages by Lewis Carroll in Jabberwocky. For example, he introduced to the language slithy, formed from lithe and slimy and galumph, from gallop and triumph Interestingly galumph has survived as a word in English, but it now seems to mean 'walk in a stomping, ungainly way'.

Forming New Words: Coinages, Nonce Words, English Loanwords and Calques

Some blends that have been around for quite a while include brunch breakfast and lunchmotel motor hotelelectrocute electric and executesmog smoke and fog and cheeseburger cheese and hamburger. A blending is a combination of two or more words to create a new one, usually by taking the beginning of the other word and the end of the other one. Sometimes blendings are referred to as portmanteau words.Word formation occurs when compounding, clipping or blending existing words to create new words.

Below we will cover the definition of these terms and give you several examples of each. Compounding words are formed when two or more lexemes combine into a single new word.

Compound words may be written as one word or as two words joined with a hyphen. For example:. Compounds may be compositional, meaning that the meaning of the new word is determined by combining the meanings of the parts, or non-compositional, meaning that the meaning of the new word cannot be determined by combining the meanings of the parts.

coining word formation

For example, a blueberry is a berry that is blue. However, a breakup is not a relationship that was severed into pieces in an upward direction. Compound nouns should not be confused with nouns modified by adjectives, verbs, and other nouns. For example, the adjective black of the noun phrase black bird is different from the adjective black of the compound noun blackbird in that black of black bird functions as a noun phrase modifier while the black of blackbird is an inseparable part of the noun: a black bird also refers to any bird that is black in color while a blackbird is a specific type of bird.

Clipping is the word formation process in which a word is reduced or shortened without changing the meaning of the word. Clipping differs from back-formation in that the new word retains the meaning of the original word. The four types of clipping are back clipping, fore-clipping, middle clipping, and complex clipping. Back clipping is removing the end of a word as in gas from gasoline. Fore-clipping is removing the beginning of a word as in gator from alligator.

Middle clipping is retaining only the middle of a word as in flu from influenza. Complex clipping is removing multiple parts from multiple words as in sitcom from situation comedy. Blending is the word formation process in which parts of two or more words combine to create a new word whose meaning is often a combination of the original words.

Below are examples of blending words. Blended words are also referred to as portmanteaus. For more complete lists of English words formed through compounding, clipping, and blending, please download the following free printable vocabulary lists:.

Bright Hub Education. Skip to content. Word Formation Word formation occurs when compounding, clipping or blending existing words to create new words. The articles in this series define and exemplify the most common word formation processes, or the creation of new words, in English including derivation, back-formation, conversion, compounding, clipping, blending, abbreviations, acronyms, eponyms, coinages, nonce words, borrowing, and calquing.A clipped form generally has the same denotative meaning as the word it comes from, but it's regarded as more colloquial and informal.

Clipping also makes it easier to spell and write many words. However, many clipped forms have also been accepted in general usage: doc, ad, auto, lab, sub, porn, demo, and condo. The authors add:. Other examples of clipped forms in English include biz, caps, celebs, deli, exam, flu, gator, hippo, hood, info, intro, lab, limo, mayo, max, perm, photo, ref, reps, rhino, sax, stats, temp, thru, tux, ump, veepand vet.

In writing, an apostrophe takes the place of the missing letters. Examples include:. As you see, clipped words are not always respectful terms. Indeed, some great literary figures vigorously opposed them, such as Jonathan Swift, who made his feelings clear in the tellingly named "A Proposal for Correcting, Improving and Ascertaining the English Tongue," first published in He saw clipping as a symptom of "barbaric" social forces that had to be tamped down:.

So, the next time you hear or use a clipped word, do so knowing that it is considered acceptable in English, but remember that these shortened terms have a long and somewhat controversial history. Contemporary Linguistics: An Introduction. Martin's, Crystal, David. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language. Jamet, Denis. Swift, Jonathan. Kessinger Publishing, Share Flipboard Email. Richard Nordquist. English and Rhetoric Professor.

coining word formation

Richard Nordquist is professor emeritus of rhetoric and English at Georgia Southern University and the author of several university-level grammar and composition textbooks.Related to Coined word: neologisticneologism. A new word or phrase of the patient's own making often seen in schizophrenia for example, headshoe to mean hator an existing word used in a new sense; in psychiatry, such usages may have meaning only to the patient or be indicative of the patient's condition.

Psychology a. The invention of new words regarded as a symptom of certain psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia. A new word or phrase of the patient's own making often seen in schizophrenia e. Mentioned in?

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Degaraged, depiped and derotored. In addition, most of the chatters and conversations contained new coined wordsacronyms or mobile languages. There were lots of new terms and coined words emerged from playing online games such as "GG' good gamecatastrophic, feeder, eliminate, invulnerable, continent, countermeasures, devour and many more. As a conclusion, although MMORPGs have the tendency to promote mobile languages and other coined wordsit is undeniable that MMORPGs facilitated in language development, especially in the aspect of vocabulary learning.

Types of Word Formation Processes

Kryzan-Stanojevic to some extent also covers the problem of the attitudes to newly coined words discussing the strategies that have to be used if we want the speech community to accept the proposed neologisms. G Seeing the newly coined words from the contest I would suggest that we--who are participating in this forum--also suggest new Croatian words.

Readers of Word Ways have tried to find a letter word which has 5 of one letter, 4 of a second letter, 3 of a third letter, 2 of a fourth letter and I of a fifth letter, in Geometrical Words: Part 1 Word Ways AugustI wrote 'The dictionary-sanctioned word which makes a triangle with the letter ratio remains as elusive as ever, the only representatives are cleverly coined words such as Sir Jeremy Morse's 'linenlessnesses'.

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